Study selection: Prospective studies reporting adjusted relative risk estimates for the association between intake of whole grains or specific types of grains and cardiovascular disease, total cancer, all cause or cause specific mortality. Nana Keum is 1 of the celebs with the age 34 years old. Second, we could not address if the timing of adult weight gain has an independent effect on the cancer risk. Furthermore, validation studies have shown that recalled past weight and self-reported current weight were reasonably correlated with measured weight, with correlation coefficients approximately greater than 0.
The label of Harvard really gets blanketed over a lot of other things. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of nut consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, total cancer, and all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results: A total of 50 studies were included. Currently, you can use PubFacts Points to promote and increase readership of your articles. All statistical tests were two-sided. For cancers with no eligible studies for dose-response meta-analyses, meta-analysis comparing highest vs lowest adult weight gain was considered as a primary analysis.
Heterogeneity Q statistic, degree of freedom : 1. Statistical Analysis Across obesity-related cancers affecting both men and women, the harmful effect of excess adiposity has been hypothesized to be stronger among men, because men have a propensity toward metabolically harmful obesity ie, deposit fat centrally rather than peripherally; have more visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. Alternatively, adult weight gain may not be a strong enough risk factor to manifest its effect in the presence of the predominant risk factor such as smoking. Thus, individuals across all weight categories are recommended to stay attentive to small changes in weight throughout life.
The traditional route of tertiary achievement sees a Japanese high school student scoring high on the college entrance examination and entering the prestigious University of Tokyo. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify these associations. Thus, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to summarise the dose-response relationships between egg consumption and the risk of breast, prostate and gynaecological cancers. These findings support dietary guidelines that recommend increased intake of whole grain to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and premature mortality. But University of Tokyo still commands more prestige than Harvard, Yamamoto says.
Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that calcium may protect against recurrence of colorectal adenomas, which could lead to the subsequent prevention of cancer. Third, unlike adolescent adipose gain that is distributed primarily on the hips and thighs pear-shaped , during adulthood fat accumulates preferentially around the waist apple-shaped , which is more detrimental metabolically. All statistical tests were two-sided. As weight tends to track over time, studies based on a cross-sectional measure of adiposity at a point in time are susceptible to confounding by adiposity at earlier time windows. Cancer Epidemiol 2015 Dec 19;39 6 :1026-35. Nana Keum is currently attending Harvard School of Public Health where she is a graduate student in the nutritional epidemiology doctoral program.
Background: Increased nut consumption has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, as well as a healthy lipid profile. The results were robust to the influence of any single study included. Background: Although nut consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, data on less common causes of death has not been systematically assessed. The area of each black square reflects the weight each study contributes to the meta-analysis.
For each cancer outcome, results were consistent across the primary and secondary meta-analyses; results from this analysis including only the studies used in dose-response meta-analysis were similar to those including all eligible studies, indicating the reasonable representativeness of the studies included in dose-response meta-analysis , available online. The book, published in spring 2005, centers on her unique studying methods. All of the inevitable measurement error arising from diverse sources could bias the results in either direction, but is generally expected to attenuate the true effect , particularly because the prospective assessment of adult weight gain relative to cancer outcome is likely to make the error random with respect to disease status. Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report? Adults follow upward-sloping weight trajectories with a mean annual weight gain of 0. Dose-response relationship between adult weight gain and postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk. Chan School of Public Health; Jonathan A.
As physical activity is more effective in preventing weight gain than in inducing weight loss , incorporation of physical activity into daily routines should be emphasized. The area of each black square reflects the weight each study contributes to the meta-analysis. Please give us your new contact information, as we may need to contact you for your authorship of papers. Not only is the amount of estrogens from adipocytes far smaller, but also the form of estrogens ie, estrone rather than estradiol is less biologically potent. This highest vs lowest meta-analysis allows for inclusion of studies providing insufficient information for dose-response meta-analysis, but has less interpretability and additional heterogeneity because of inconsistent exposure categories across studies.